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  2. 1. Historical Background and Introduction
  3. 1. Historical Background and Introduction
  4. Christian Science
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There is no cost to use Perusall beyond the cost of purchasing the book. Note: Students must purchase through Perusall to access the book in Perusall. Membership in different types of voluntary associations and psychological well being. Religious activities and attitudes of older adults in a geriatric assessment clinic.

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Wuthnow R. Religious involvement and status-bridging social capital. Kim D, Kawachi I. A multilevel analysis of key forms of community- and individual-level social capital as predictors of self-rated health in the United States. Journal of Urban Health. The Holy Bible. New Kings James Version. Jewish Virtual Library. Conrad L. Islam and the body.

In: Buswell RE, editor. The relationship between religious activities and cigarette smoking in older adults. A cross-national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: the United States and Australia. Public and private domains of religiosity and adolescent smoking transitions. Religion: a sociocultural predictor of health behaviors in Mexico. Burden of cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and incident cardiovascular events across dimensions of religiosity: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Frequent attendance at religious services and mortality over 28 years. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Gillum RF. Frequency of attendance at religious services and leisure-time physical activity in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Frequency of attendance at religious services and mortality in a U. Annals of Epidemiology. Baetz M, Bowen R. Chronic pain and fatigue: associations with religion and spirituality.

Who are the sedentary people in Israel? A public health indicator. Israel Medical Association Journal. McHenry JH. Prayer Walk. Crawford DR, Miller C. Prayer Walking. Walking Meditation. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. Social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: Ethnic and gender differences. The role of religiosity in dietary beliefs and behaviors among urban African American women. Cancer Control. Frequency of attendance at religious services, cardiovascular disease, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake in Americans: An age-stratified exploratory analysis.

The relationship between the social environment within religious organizations and intake of fat versus fruits and vegetables. Religious observance and plasma lipids and lipoproteins among year-old Jewish residents of Jerusalem. Religious education and midlife observance are associated with dementia three decades later in Israeli men. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Burden of cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and incident cardiovascular events across dimensions of religiosity: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Effects of Greek orthodox christian church fasting on serum lipids and obesity. BMC Public Health. A brief but comprehensive lifestyle education program based on yoga reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Oman D, Reed D. Religion and mortality among the community-dwelling elderly.

Ferraro KF. Firm believers? Religion, body weight, and well-being. Religion and body weight. International Journal of Obesity. One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U. Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Urban living and obesity: Is it independent of its population and lifestyle characteristics?

Tropical Medicine and International Health. Religious service attendance and allostatic load among high-functioning elderly. Psychosomatic Medicine. Lose weight and win: a church-based weight loss program for blood pressure control among black women. Patient Education and Counseling. The effect of the fast of Ramadan on ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives.

Journal of Human Hypertension. A pilot church-based weight loss program for African-American adults using church members as health educators: A comparison of individual and group intervention. Ethnicity and Disease. The WORD wholeness, oneness, righteousness, deliverance : a Faith-based weight-loss program utilizing a community-based participatory research approach.

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Religiosity and well-being among retirees: a question of causality. Behavior, Health, and Aging. Religion, religiosity, and nonmarital sexual conduct: an application of reference group theory. Sociological Inquiry. Women with multiple sexual partners: United States, Understanding infidelity: correlates in a national random sample. Coital debut: the role of religiosity and sex attitudes in the add health survey.

Journal of Sex Research. Prevalence of partner violence in same-sex romantic and sexual relationships in a national sample of adolescents. Associations between religiosity and sexuality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Predicting sexual infidelity in a population-based sample of married individuals. McEwen BS. Seminars in medicine of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center: protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. Chronic stress and age-related increases in the proinflammatory cytokine IL Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry.

Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold.

1. Historical Background and Introduction

Depression as a risk factor for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. The Lancet. Psychological distress and cancer survival: a follow-up 10 years after diagnosis. Emotional vitality and incident coronary heart disease: benefits of healthy psychological functioning. Hostile behaviors predict cardiovascular mortality among men enrolled in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Association between psychological distress and mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies.

British Medical Journal. Social relationships and health. Estimated deaths attributable to social factors in the united states. Social relationships and mortality. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. Comstock GW. Fatal arteriosclerotic heart disease, water hardness at home, and socioeconomic characteristics. American Journal of Epidemiology. Religious orthodoxy and myocardial infarction in Jerusalem. A case control study. International Journal of Cardiology. Factors predictive of long-term coronary heart disease mortality among 10, male Israeli civil servants and municipal employees: A year mortality follow-up in the Israeli ischemic heart disease study.

Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology. Prevalence and determinants of coronary heart disease in a rural population of India. Frequency of attendance at religious services, cardiovascular disease, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake in Americans: an age-stratified exploratory analysis. Spirituality and autonomic cardiac control.

Religious observance and acute coronary syndrome in predominantly Muslim Albania: a population-based case-control study in Tirana. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Psychology and Health. Lack of social participation or religious strength and comfort as risk factors for death after cardiac surgery in the elderly. Psychosocial factors in outcomes of heart surgery: the impact of religious involvement and depressive symptoms.

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Prayer and reverence in naturalistic, aesthetic, and socio-moral contexts predicted fewer complications following coronary artery bypass. Spirituality predicts health and cardiovascular responses to stress in young adult women. Religious involvement and perceived social support: interactive effects on cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research. Hefti R. Religion as a moderator of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with mild to severe depression.

1. Historical Background and Introduction

Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: Comparative study. The relationship between attendance at religious services and cardiovascular inflammatory markers. C-reactive protein, diabetes, and attendance at religious services. Diabetes Care. Social integration and concentrations of C-reactive protein among US adults.

Social integration is associated with fibrinogen concentration in elderly men. Obrist PA. Cardiovascular Psychophysiology. Psychologic factors as precursors to hypertension. Current hypertension reports. Does psychosocial stress cause hypertension? A systematic review of observational studies.

Scotch NA. Sociocultural factors in the epidemiology of Zulu hypertension. Frequency of church attendance and blood pressure elevation. Hypertension among Asians and Pacific islanders in California. Age and blood pressure changes. A year follow-up study in nuns in a secluded order. Social integration and black intraracial variation in blood pressure. Religion and cardiovascular disease risk. Walsh A. Religion and hypertension: testing alternative explanations among immigrants. Behavioral Medicine.

Religious coping, ethnicity, and ambulatory blood pressure. A link between psychosocial factors and blood pressure trend in women. Physiology and Behavior. Al-Kandari YY. Religiosity and its relation to blood pressure among selected Kuwaitis. Journal of Biosocial Science. Frequency of attendance at religious services, hypertension, and blood pressure: the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Religious involvement and health outcomes among older persons in Taiwan.

Randomised controlled trial of yoga and bio feedback in management of hypertension. Patel C, Datey KK. Relaxation and biofeedback techniques in the management of hypertension. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis.

International Journal of Neuroscience. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Impact of transcendental meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease.

Religion and health in Mexican Americans. Impact of Ramadan on demographics and frequencies of disease-related visits in the emergency department. International Journal of Clinical Practice. Religious involvement, social support, and health among African-American women on the east side of Detroit. Ethnicity and Health. An examination of the relationship between multiple dimensions of religiosity, blood pressure, and hypertension.

Fitchett G, Powell LH. Daily spiritual experiences, systolic blood pressure, and hypertension among midlife women in swan. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among United States adults — Newport F. Religion and party ID strongly linked among whites, not blacks. Depressive symptoms and other psychosocial factors as predictors of stroke in the elderly. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans.

Sapolsky RM. Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conrad CD. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: the glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis. Reviews in the Neurosciences. Plasma cortisol and progression of dementia in subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia. The effects of chronic glucocorticoid exposure on dendritic length, synapse numbers and glial volume in animal models: implications for hippocampal volume reductions in depression.

Religion and cognitive dysfunction in an elderly cohort. Religious attendance and cognitive functioning among older Mexican Americans. Cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: impact of spirituality, religiosity, and QOL. Correlates of religious service attendance and contact with religious leaders among persons with co-occurring serious mental illness and type 2 diabetes. Church attendance mediates the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning among older Mexican Americans.

Religious attendance reduces cognitive decline among older women with high levels of depressive symptoms. Potential occupational risks for neurodegenerative diseases. Current Alzheimer Research. Zhang W. Religious participation, gender differences, and cognitive impairment among the oldest-old in China. Journal of Aging Research. Jones BM. Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong: a pilot study. Attendance at religious services, interleukin-6, and other biological parameters of immune function in older adults.

Religiosity is associated with affective and immune status in symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. View of God is associated with disease progression in HIV. View of God as benevolent and forgiving or punishing and judgmental predicts HIV disease progression. Women and Health. Religious participation, interleukin-6, and mortality in older adults.

McClelland DC. The effect of motivational arousal through films on salivary immunoglobulin A. A randomized clinical trial of alternative stress management interventions in persons with HIV infection. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Spiritual expression and immune status in women with metastatic breast cancer: An exploratory study.

Breast Journal. A prospective study of social support, anger expression and risk of periodontitis in men. Journal of the American Dental Association. Trinitapoli J, Regnerus MD. Religion and HIV risk behaviors among married men: initial results from a study in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study. Spiritual absence and 1-year mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Religious involvement and seroprevalence of six infectious diseases in US adults.

Southern Medical Journal. Depressive disorders and immunity: 20 years of progress and discovery. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Religious expression and immune competence in women with advanced cancer. A path model of the effects of spirituality on depressive symptoms and hurinary-free cortisol in HIV-positive persons.

Jin P. Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. Stress management: a randomized study of cognitive behavioural therapy and yoga. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Religious vs. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates. Breast Cancer Research.

Occupational female breast and reproductive cancer mortality in British Columbia, Canada, — Occupational Medicine. Relation of various epidemiologic factors to cervical cancer as determined by a screening program. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Cancer in Utah Mormon men by lay priesthood level. Cancer in Utah Mormon women by Church activity level. Ringdal GI. Religiosity, quality of life, and survival in cancer patients.

Social Indicators Research. Enstrom JE. Health practices and cancer mortality among active California Mormons. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The effect of religious concentration and affiliation on county cancer mortality rates. Religion, race, and breast cancer survival. Roles of religious involvement and social support in the risk of colon cancer among blacks and whites.

Socio-demographic factors in the prognosis of oral cancer patients. Oral Oncology. Cucino C, Sonnenberg A. Occupational mortality from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in the United States during — Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Psychological stress and disease. Do stress-related psychosocial factors contribute to cancer incidence and survival? Nature Clinical Practice Oncology. Idler EL. Religious involvement and the health of the elderly: some hypotheses and an initial test.

Religion among disabled and nondisabled persons II: attendance at religious services as a predictor of the course of disability. Religious belief, depression, and ambulation status in elderly women with broken hips. Age-related declines in activity level: the relationship between chronic illness and religious activities.

Effects of volunteering on the well-being of older adults. Higher church attendance predicts lower fear of falling in older Mexican-Americans. Aging and Mental Health. Depression, faith-based coping, and short-term postoperative global functioning in adult and older patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The association of health and functional status with private and public religious practice among rural, ethnically diverse, older adults with diabetes. Journal of Rural Health. Attendance at religious services and physical functioning after stroke among older Mexican Americans.

Experimental Aging Research. Effect of short-term intensive yoga program on pain, functional disability and spinal flexibility in chronic low back pain: a randomized control study. Religion, health, and nonphysical senses of self. Hendershot GE. Mobility limitations and complementary and alternative medicine: are people with disabilities more likely to pray? Prevalence of low back pain in a developing urban setting. Shmueli A. Health and religiosity among Israeli Jews. European Journal of Public Health.

Religion and functional health among the elderly: is there a relationship and is it constant? Religion, spirituality, and health in medically Ill hospitalized older patients. Bath PA. Self-rated health as a risk factor for prescribed drug use and future health and social service use in older people. Idler EL, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies.

What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model. Musick MA. Religion and subjective health among black and white elders. Neighborhood deterioration, religious coping, and changes in health during late life. Levin J. God, love, and health: findings from a clinical study. Individual-level relationships between social capital and self-rated health in a bilingual community. Acculturation stress, social support, and self-rated health among Latinos in California. Journal of immigrant health.

Religiousness and the trajectory of self-rated health across adulthood. Exploring the stress-buffering effects of church-based and secular social support on self-rated health in late life. Gratitude toward God, stress, and health in late life. Social determinants of health-a comparative study of Bosnian adolescents in different cultural contexts. Collegium Antropologicum. Religiosity and self-rated health among Latin American and Caribbean elders. National cohort.

A prospective study of church attendance and health over the lifespan. Church-based volunteering, providing informal support at church, and self-rated health in late life. Religious involvement, humility, and self-rated health. Close companions at church, health, and health care use in late life. Prevalence of the use of unconventional remedies for arthritis in a metropolitan community. Arthritis and Rheumatism. Does spirituality as a coping mechanism help or hinder coping with chronic pain? Current Pain and Headache Reports. Charcot JM. Turner JA, Clancy S. Strategies for coping with chronic low back pain: relationship to pain and disability.

The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Is spirituality a critical ingredient of meditation? Comparing the effects of spiritual meditation, secular meditation, and relaxation on spiritual, psychological, cardiac, and pain outcomes. Effectiveness of yoga therapy in the treatment of migraine without aura: a randomized controlled trial.

Christian Science

Anterolateral prefrontal cortex mediates the analgesic effect of expected and perceived control over pain. Journal of Neuroscience. Grant JA, Rainville P. Pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of mindful states in zen meditators: a cross-sectional study. Cortical thickness and pain sensitivity in Zen meditators.

Religiosity and depression among nursing home residents: results of a survey of ten states. Journal of Religious Gerontology. Preoperative coping strategies and distress predict postoperative pain and morphine consumption in women undergoing abdominal gynecologic surgery. Social ties and mortality in Evans county, Georgia. Bryant S, Rakowski W. Predictors of mortality among elderly African-Americans. Does religious observance promote health? Mortality in secular vs religious Kibbutzim in Israel. Does religious attendance prolong survival? Religious involvement and U. Does private religious activity prolong survival?

A six-year follow-up study of 3, older adults. Fundamentalists criticize Graham for his willingness to work with liberal Protestants and politicians. The depth of this split is evident years later as Billy Graham schedules breakfast meetings with U. Evangelicals argue that in the face of nonbelief, Christians must engage and participate in the outside culture in order to set the world right.

Fundamentalists insist on remaining separate from popular culture and take a stridently adversarial position against the larger, secular society. Fuller Theological Seminary becomes a center for evangelicals, while schools like Bob Jones University remain solidly fundamentalist. A Methodist and then Dutch Reformed pastor, Peale preaches on stage, in church, on the radio, on television and most famously in print. His message is of the individual's ability to take control of his or her inner spiritual life in order to achieve specific personal gains.

Peale's message strikes a chord with Americans and shares aspects of the New Thought and later New Age religions. But Christian critics denounce Peale's version of Christianity and object to his overreliance on self-help. Widely broadcast, the program ushers in a new era in evangelism. Healing evangelists, such as Oral Roberts, soon follow Humbard to television and reach millions of viewers. These charismatic televangelists help move Pentecostalism into the mainstream. Herberg posits a "triple melting pot" in which Protestantism, Catholicism and Judaism form the branches of a shared national faith opposed to "godless communism.

According to the article, membership in these churches has grown percent in the 50 preceding years. Mainline Christian programs wither, while evangelical programming surges in the newly competitive broadcast marketplace. Bennett, an Episcopal rector, receives the baptism of the Holy Spirit and begins to speak in tongues. He chooses to remain within the Episcopal Church and takes over a struggling parish in Seattle, turning it into a thriving Episcopal charismatic outpost.

Neopagans often believe in the mind's ability to influence life events and in the interconnected nature of life. Neopaganism's popularity in the s and s corresponds with movements for ecological and social justice, as well as trends toward more individual and private spirituality. Usually polytheistic, Neopagan traditions emphasize the diversity of individual experience and reject the idea of one truth for all people.

As Wiccan priestess and journalist Margot Adler writes, "The spiritual world needs diversity to thrive. In , Robertson names his main program The Club and models its combination of talk and entertainment on the popular late-night program The Tonight Show. More than 40 years later, The Club is still in production.

Groups like the beatniks take the opportunity to attend Suzuki's classes. The Second Vatican Council returns the Catholic Church to its more ecumenical roots, stresses the necessity of repairing divisions within Christianity, and addresses the need to overcome anti-Semitism. At the council, bishops offer solutions for the church to overcome issues stemming from modernity, rather than avoiding them altogether. They also embrace the idea that "inalienable rights of conscience" should govern church-state relations, thus rejecting the historic Catholic stance that the church should enjoy a special relationship with government.

In the late s, she begins to pursue a ban on prayer in public schools in the case Murray v. Her case begins: "Your petitioners are Atheists, and they define their lifestyle as follows. An Atheist loves himself and his fellow man instead of a god. An Atheist accepts that heaven is something for which we should work now -- here on earth -- for all men together to enjoy. An Atheist accepts that he can get no help through prayer, but that he must find in himself the inner conviction and strength to meet life, to grapple with it, to subdue it and to enjoy it.

Schempp , and in , the Supreme Court rules mandatory public school prayer unconstitutional. His conversion and establishment of the Muslim Mosque Inc. He converts to Sunni Islam in , when W. Although Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists and Muslims had been living in the United States for more than a century, these religious communities experience unprecedented growth in the decades following the Immigration Act. Throughout the country, immigrants build communities complete with mosques, temples and gurdwaras, religious structures that had been nonexistent or hidden in America in the past.

Stirring controversy, the cover is better remembered than the accompanying article, a discussion about the difficulties contemporary religion faces in making God relevant and necessary to modern life. Although the article itself does not assert that God is dead, it is often cited as a wildly inaccurate assessment of religious life in America at the time. Nicknamed "Godstock," Explo '72, held at the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, draws 80, conference attendees, who are joined by an additional , people for a Christian music festival later called "The Christian Woodstock.

Deen Mohammed becomes the supreme minister of the Nation of Islam after his father, Elijah Muhammad, dies in Mohammed enacts what he calls the "Second Resurrection" of African Americans, working to align his Islamic community with mainstream Islam. He renames the Nation of Islam the Muslim American Community and moves the group toward Sunni Islam, stressing racial unity and making changes such as renaming the NOI temples "mosques" or "masajid" and ministers "imams.

Just before the fall of Saigon, , Vietnamese refugees arrive in the United States. In and , more than , Vietnamese follow in a second wave of immigration. Orange County, Calif. Unlike earlier temples, these are often dedicated to the worship of one or more deities to respond to the religious needs of a diverse American Hindu population. In a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pa.

Setting aside his earlier aversion to mixing religion and politics, Falwell leads the organization into the political arena, where evangelical voters become a major force who transform both the religious and political landscape of the country, beginning with the election of Ronald Reagan. Observers call the era the age of the electronic church.

The on-air appeal of televangelists attracts millions of viewers and brings in millions of dollars. A series of scandals later damages the reputations of several television preachers. The religion, which has no written scripture, relies on transmission from generation to generation, limiting its growth in America and also its appeal beyond Japanese American followers. Asian population doubles; reaches 7. They sue, and their case reaches the Supreme Court, which rules that the dismissals did not violate the employees' rights. Justice Antonin Scalia delivers the majority opinion, which acknowledges that religious minorities may be at a disadvantage in their ability to freely exercise their religion: "It may fairly be said that leaving accommodation to the political process will place at a relative disadvantage those religious practices that are not widely engaged in; but that unavoidable consequence of democratic government must be preferred to a system in which each conscience is a law unto itself or in which judges weigh the social importance of all laws against the centrality of all religious beliefs.

Smith Oyez. Senate By the s, the number of American-born Muslims increases significantly as the children of immigrants who arrived after passage of the Immigration Act of begin to have children of their own. As the Muslim population grows, Islam becomes more visible in American mainstream culture. Muslim religious leaders are included in religious debates and forums; Imam W. Deen Mohammed delivers the first Muslim invocation in the U. Senate, and the U. Army and Navy install their first Muslim chaplains.

The holiday has been celebrated at the White House each year since. Wuthnow writes, "Despite evidence that churches and synagogues are, on the surface, faring well, the deeper meaning of spirituality seems to be moving in a new direction in response to changes in U. House session opens with Hindu prayers On Sept. House of Representatives session with the prayer for the day in Hindi and English and closes with a Sanskrit hymn. In his speech to Congress following the attacks, President George W. Bush states: "I also want to speak tonight directly to Muslims throughout the world.

We respect your faith. It's practiced freely by many millions of Americans and by millions more in countries that America counts as friends. Its teachings are good and peaceful, and those who commit evil in the name of Allah blaspheme the name of Allah. Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Christopher Hitchens publish their own books arguing for atheism and against religion.

He holds the church's 25th-anniversary celebration in Angel Stadium. The rise of the megachurch, defined as a church with an average of more than 2, persons in attendance at weekly services, has changed the American religious landscape. According to Warren, the megachurch is "a purpose-driven church, rather than a personality-driven church," and indicates a move away from a large, centralized denominational structure toward a more localized and personal faith community.

Hartford Institute for Religion Research. Controversy erupts over the oath-taking ceremony when a reporter asks Ellison if he will place his hand on a Bible. The controversy largely neglects the fact that all members of Congress are sworn in together in an ecumenical ceremony in which there is no Bible or other religious text officially present. The representative can then choose to re-enact the swearing-in ceremony for a photo opportunity with a religious text.

Ellison uses a Quran that belonged to Thomas Jefferson for his photo. Citing tradition, Johnson says he will use a Bible. Hirono has no plans to use any religious text for the photo. Even Latino Catholics -- 68 percent of Latino churchgoers -- embrace the more personal and spirit-filled traditions, and many Latino evangelicals report leaving Catholicism because they are seeking a more personal experience of God.


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Senate session Rajan Zed, a Hindu chaplain from Nevada, is invited to give the prayer to open the July 12 session. Christian activists disrupt and attempt to shout down Zed as he begins the prayer. The activists ask God's forgiveness for allowing a Hindu prayer. Kennedy's speech about his Catholic faith.

Let me assure you that no authorities of my church, or of any other church for that matter, will ever exert influence on presidential decisions. Their authority is theirs, within the province of church affairs, and it ends where the affairs of the nation begin. The nation's second largest megachurch in , Second Baptist, is located five miles away.

The group with the largest increase in number -- 16 percent of American adults -- describes itself as "unaffiliated" with any religious denomination. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus, and nonbelievers. A recent Pew Center paper reports that while After debating how the institution of slavery should be addressed in the Constitution, the delegates come to an agreement that maintains the status quo. Both opponents and defenders of slavery believe God favors their cause and find rationales for their views in the Bible.

Pro-slavery arguments are simple and powerful: The patriarch Abraham owned slaves. The law of Moses governed slavery. In the New Testament, Jesus did not condemn slavery, although it was widespread in Roman antiquity. And the apostle Paul urged slaves to obey their masters. Abolitionists appeal to the spirit, not the letter, of the Bible, arguing that the moral principles set forth in the Old and New Testaments stand in contradiction to the idea that one person could own another as property. During the early 19th century, the AME Church becomes one of the largest black churches in the United States, finding adherents among free blacks living in major cities across the Northeast.

Within the AME Church there are debates over its primary mission -- to build American institutions to support and uplift black communities or to support recolonization efforts in Africa.


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By , the AME Church has grown from one dissenting Philadelphia congregation into an influential national church with , members. New converts to rapidly growing denominations such as Methodism are encouraged to change their hearts, their homes and their towns. James Finley , one such convert, advocates rights for Native Americans, temperance, prison reform and abolition. Fired by religious zeal, evangelical Protestants form voluntary associations dedicated to causes such as reforming prisons, running orphanages, feeding the poor and encouraging education and literacy. At a time when federal and state institutions are relatively weak, these organizations perform many services later taken on by the government.

The ABCFM draws missionaries from a variety of denominations, but groups take different views over the missions' basic purpose. Some fundamentalist Protestants argue that their ultimate goal is to save individual souls. Others say saving souls isn't enough and insist that missionaries should work to effect institutional changes to provide a moral and just society. The terms of the debate broaden to include constitutional equality as well as religion and morality.

And why should it be thought impossible, heterodox, or improper for a woman to preach? Seeing as the Saviour died for the woman as well as for the man. Lee becomes one of a number of prominent agitators to equate the struggle of blacks and the struggle of women, and she fights for both. Sunday schools teach children to read and write, and the American Sunday School Union develops primers that teach both reading and Christian morals. Another set of widely used and popular schoolbooks are McGuffey Readers, developed by a Presbyterian minister.

By , the society is printing 6 million tracts a year, a bimonthly magazine, a Christian almanac and a series of children's books. Often disseminated by traveling evangelical preachers, the tracts deal with issues such as the dangers of excessive drinking and teach lessons based on a generalized Protestant Christian morality. The consumption of alcohol is a serious problem in the 19th century: The average American then drank three times the amount the average American drinks today. Cider is a substitute for water in areas with poor water quality, and a typical workday includes the ringing of two bells, one at 11 a.

Most alarming to church communities are the moral issues of alcoholism, which include domestic abuse. By the mids, more than , people belong to the society, and more than a million will join by the midth century. The reformers also call upon women to steer their husbands toward morally correct Christian decision making in the public sphere. Susan Rhodes, a former slave, recalls: "We used to steal off to the woods and have church, like the Spirit moved us -- sing and pray to our own liking and soul satisfaction. Slave owners discourage this religious practice, preferring their slaves to attend services where themes of obedience and deference are preached.

The schools teach Protestant values under the guise of "American values. When a lion eats an ox, the lion does not become an ox, but the ox becomes a lion. At the society's inception, its first president, Joseph Smith's wife Emma, says, "We are going to do something extraordinary -- when a boat is struck on the rapids, with a multitude A Southerner in New England writes: "The Methodist Church will be divided into two great parties, with mutual jealousies and antagonistic measures. The Presbyterians are in danger of the same evil.

And if the Baptists, unmindful of their duty to Christ and their country, shall bite and devour one another, and array themselves into two great parties, the Northern and the Southern, what conservative principles, what salt of the earth will be left to restrain and modulate the madness of political strife and ambition save from ruin our Republic?

The Baptists split in , and the Presbyterians split partially in and completely in He becomes a staunch abolitionist and condemns American Christianity for accepting slavery and ignoring the teachings of Jesus Christ. In his Narrative , written in , he challenges American Christians to question churches that defend slavery as a biblical institution.

The early Mormon community functions almost as a theocracy; practices such as polygamy are instituted as ordained by God. In , President Buchanan sends American troops to Utah in response to news that Brigham Young has established a theocratic society within the boundaries of the United States. She rewrites the Declaration of Independence in a document she calls the Declaration of Sentiments, changing "all men are created equal" to "all men and women are created equal. Stanton joins forces with Lucretia Mott , a Quaker whose religion has long taught the equality of the sexes.

Signs and visions she receives from God persuade her to return to the South and lead an estimated 70 people to safety. Her courage and determination earn her the nickname "Moses. Truth speaks so powerfully that at one gathering men accuse her of being a man. She responds by baring her breasts, shaming the men for their accusation. In her speech "Ain't I a Woman," Truth furthers the argument that women have a moral role in religion and society: "I can't read, but I can hear.

I have heard the Bible and have learned that Eve caused man to sin. Well, if woman upset the world, do give her a chance to set it right side up again. Never reaching a consensus on the slavery question, evangelicals who had stood outside of politics turn to it to effect change in causes including abolition, temperance and anti-Catholicism. He hopes to capture weapons and ignite a slave uprising, but his raid fails, and Brown is captured. Brown maintains that Jesus Christ will return to the United States, and the hoped-for slave uprising will help to fulfill God's plan for America.

Awaiting execution, Brown compares himself to the apostle Paul: "He knew that if they killed them, he would greatly advance the cause of Christ. The war begins on April Struggling to make sense of the conflict and of the untimely death of his year-old son, Willie, however, he begins to re-examine his relationship with God. He becomes convinced that if Southern troops are driven from Northern soil, God has sent a signal in favor of emancipation. In September, the battle of Antietam gives him this sign. Meeting with his Cabinet, Lincoln announces, "God has decided this question in favor of the slaves.

Harvard University President Edward Everett delivers the main oration. Lincoln speaks next, delivering a speech that consists of a mere words. He does not mention Gettysburg, nor does he mention the Emancipation Proclamation.

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He does not blame the Confederacy for the continuing hostilities. Instead, Lincoln seeks to find the spiritual meaning in the struggle that has torn the nation in two. He calls upon the living to finish the great cause for which the dead have fought: "We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that the government of the people by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Frederick Douglass sees Lincoln's death as a kind of martyrdom: "It may be that the blood of our beloved martyred President will be the salvation of our country. Though Abraham Lincoln dies, the Republic lives. He lobbies for the passage of three major constitutional amendments -- the Reconstruction Amendments -- that outlaw slavery, assure civil equality and guarantee voting rights to all Americans regardless of color. The amendments are passed after Lincoln's assassination. Reconstruction governments and policies are shaped and put into place within a few years of the Civil War's end, but it will be more than years until African Americans are integrated into American society.

Under the leadership of Frances Willard , the WCTU becomes the largest American women's organization, with chapters in every state, major city and thousands of local communities. While suffrage remains a divisive issue, the cause of temperance unites women across class and race. Despite the constitutional guarantees, free blacks are systematically denied civil and voting rights.

Du Bois later writes that the hope kindled by the Civil War and Reconstruction had dramatically dimmed: "The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery. Here Native Americans are turned into "proper" Americans -- Christian Americans -- who will value the prevailing ethic of work, thrift and ambition. Between and , approximately 12, schoolchildren from tribes attend such schools. First of all, there is no intermediary more powerful than religion whereof the Church is the interpreter and guardian in drawing the rich and the working class together, by reminding each of its duties to the other, and especially of the obligations of justice.

If one falls he shall be supported by the other. Woe to him that is alone, for when he falleth he hath none to lift him up. The publication shocks the nation; some members of the women's movement think that Stanton is too radical. Susan B. Anthony urges fellow leaders of the women's movement to avoid division. A savvy politician, Anthony believes that women should welcome many points of view: "What you should say to outsiders is that a Christian has neither more nor less rights in our association than an atheist. When our platform becomes too narrow for people of all creeds and of no creeds, I myself cannot stand upon it.

Who can tell now whether these commentaries may not prove a great help to woman's emancipation from old superstitions which have barred its way? But many end up in urban slums, where they toil in sweatshops and suffer from poverty, disease and overcrowding. Christians respond to these social ills in two ways: Some follow revivalist Dwight Moody, who preaches a message of personal sin and redemption. But others join the Social Gospel movement, determined to put their religious beliefs into practice and right society's wrongs.

Its foremost proponent is Walter Rauschenbusch , a seventh-generation minister of a tiny church on the edge of New York City's Hell's Kitchen. In , he publishes Christianity and the Social Crisis. But, he says, it is up to men and women to act on Christ's message and realize the kingdom of God on earth.

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These beliefs include the inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth of Jesus and his bodily resurrection. Three million copies of the pamphlets are distributed. Fundamentalists later take their name from the title of these pamphlets. After a trial filled with racial stereotypes, he is convicted and sentenced to death. He appeals to John Slaton, Georgia's outgoing governor, who concludes Frank had received an unfair trial and commutes his sentence to life in prison. Frank is then dragged from prison and lynched by a mob. No one is prosecuted for the lynching. The incident provides a major impetus for both the founding of the Anti-Defamation League by the Jewish B'nai B'rith Organization and the re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan, which expands its targets to include Jews and Catholics.

Leo Frank PBS. An exception to the law is made for the sacramental use of wine. Supporters of Prohibition argue that the ills of drunkenness, particularly abusive family situations, require government intervention. Opponents believe that government should have no part in enforcing morality.